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Civil War and Reconstruction

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Administering the law in Reconstruction North Carolina: Account book of Deputy U.S. Marshal including first arrests under the Civil Rights Act of 1866

ROBERT C. KEHOE, Manuscript Account Book, with U.S. Marshal Daniel R. Goodloe, 1865-1868, Pamlico District, North Carolina. 267 pp., 7½ x 12 in.

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Detailing costs owed to Daniel R. Goodloe, U.S. Marshal, for services performed by Robert C. Kehoe, Deputy U.S. Marshal, for the Pamlico District in eastern North Carolina. Recording Kehoe’s service of writs, summonses, and warrants; his arrests and seizures; notices published; and fees. The entries generally note the suspect and the charges in criminal cases including civil rights violations; counterfeiting; theft of government horses. From the North Carolina coast, crimes include smuggling and assault on the high seas with intent to kill.

Item #24688, $4,500

Hand-Made Union Patriotic and Religious Song Book

[CIVIL WAR], Manuscript Pen and Ink Folk Art Song Book, ca. 1864. 24 pp., 6⅝ x 8 in.

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This hand-sewn booklet contains eight songs popular during the Civil War era, with music and lyrics in calligraphy. Songs include “On a Green Grassy Noll” by J. D. Canning, with music by Ira Odell; “The Old Mountain Tree” by James G. Clark; “Harmonian Waltz”; “Year of Jubilee, or Kingdom has Come!”; “Squire Jones’s Daughter”; “The Sweet Birds Are Singing”; “Lament of the Irish Emigrant”; and “Soon and For Ever,” by J. B. Monsell. The last page of the booklet is dated February 21, 1864.

Item #24826, $4,500

South Carolina Governor’s Draft Proclamation Urging Civilians to Evacuate Charleston

MILLEDGE L. BONHAM, Manuscript Document Signed, Charleston, South Carolina, August 17, 1863. 4 pp. on lined blue paper, watermarked F A Gordon 1862, 8 x 12½ in.

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Whereas the convention on the 8th Jany 1862 expressed “as the sense of the people of South Carolina … that Charleston should be defended at any cost of life or property … I, Milledge L. Bonham Commander-in-chief in & over the State of South Carolina do recommend to, and enjoin upon, all good citizens the removal from Charleston, as early as practicable, of all non-combatants....

Item #24671.05, $4,500

“Separating the Loyal from the Disloyal”
in Reconstruction North Carolina

[CIVIL WAR], Archive of materials relating to the administering of loyalty oaths in North Carolina after the Civil War during presidential Reconstruction. 1865-1866.

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Item #21814, $4,500

Report of Attacks on Forts Walker and Beauregard

JUDAH P. BENJAMIN, Autograph Letter Signed as Confederate Secretary of War, to President Jefferson Davis, with Davis’s endorsement. Richmond, Va., December 30, 1861. 1 p., plus docket, 7⅝ x 8⅞ in.

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Benjamin sends his official reports on the attacks on Forts Walker and Beauregard to Jefferson Davis, to be communicated to the Confederate Congress.

Item #20084, $4,500

Georgia Militia Incorporated
into Provisional Confederate Army

LEROY POPE WALKER, Letter Signed, as Confederate Secretary of War, to Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown. Montgomery, Ala., March 8, 1861. On “Confederate States of America, War Department” stationery. Docketed, “Call for Southern Rights Meeting.” 2 pp., 9⅞ x 7⅞ in.

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The Confederate Secretary of War writes the governor of Georgia asking for state militia troops and new enlistees to be transferred to the Provisional Confederate Army. This so-called P.A.C.S. was authorized by act of the Confederate Congress on February 28, 1861, a week prior to this letter. “The President, therefore, instructs me to express the hope that Your Excellency appreciating … the necessity for immediate military organization subject to the control of this Government - will tender, for the Provisional Army, the troops now in the service of your State.” The Civil War began in earnest a month later, with the Confederate capture of Fort Sumter on April 13th.

Item #21769, $4,250

First Federal Occupation of Winchester Broadside

[CIVIL WAR], Broadside, signed in type by Colonel William D. Lewis, Winchester, Virginia, April 17, 1862, 1 p. 12½ x 11 in.

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Broadside describing the first occupation of Winchester, Virginia, during the Civil War.

Item #22128, $4,200

Ulysses S. Grant Follows Up on African American Troops’ First Battle at Milliken’s Bend: “Drive the enemy from Richmond. Reinforce Mower all you can and send him to do it.”

ULYSSES S. GRANT, Autograph Note Signed, to Elias S. Dennis, June 13, 1863, 1 p. 7¾ x 2½ in.

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Grant was determined to take Vicksburg, and retaking the surrounding countryside in Mississippi and across the river in Louisiana were critical parts of his plan. Here, he moves around troops to further his design after an important showing by the USCT a few days earlier. In his Memoirs, Grant observed that “This was the first important engagement of the war in which colored troops were under fire,” and he praised their actions.

Item #24508, $4,000

On the Day He was Promoted to Rear Admiral, Farragut Writes from His Flagship During the Bombardment of Vicksburg, Mississippi

DAVID FARRAGUT, Letter Signed, to J.C. Febriger. Vicksburg, Miss., aboard the “U.S. Flag Ship Hartford. Below Vicksburg,” July 16, 1862. 1 p., 8 x 10 in. With the original transmittal envelope.

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Unaware of his promotion, Farragut writes as “Flag Officer” to Lieutenant Commander J. C. Febriger of the U.S.S. Kanawha reminding him of ordnance protocols and reports.

Item #23548, $3,900

Beauregard’s Thanks for Donation for
“our gallant soldiers now battling manfully for our rights & our Independence…”

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Autograph Letter Signed, to Col. Charles J. Helm in Havana Cuba. From Charleston, S.C., January 28, 1863. On “Head Quarters, Department of South Carolina, Georgia & Florida” stationery. Endorsed on verso by Helm. 1 p., 8 x 9⅞ in.

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A cordial letter to Col. Charles J. Helm, Confederate agent in the West Indies, sending thanks to “Mrs. Phebe M. Newcomb” for her donation of wool socks to the Confederate Army. He takes the opportunity to speak eloquently to the privations that Southern troops, specifically the Washington Artillery of New Orleans, have endured. “Permit me to thank you, & thro’ you Mrs. Phebe M. Newcomb, for the wollen socks she has been kind enough to make…

Item #21784, $3,900

Jefferson Davis’ Hope for a Future Union
Based on Confederate Principles

JEFFERSON DAVIS, Autograph Letter Signed, “Jefferson Davis”, to Mr. Clegg, Beauvoir, Mississippi, September 3, 1885. 2 pages.

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Davis expresses his hope for a future Union based on Confederate principles:  “…The sentiment to which you refer as ‘common,’ is I hope the utterance of time serving self seekers, rather than of the people who dared and did and sacrificed so much for principle, and the rights their Fathers left them.  I trust your four boys will imbibe the patriotism of their Father and when in the fullness of time the restoration shall come that they may enjoy the blessings of liberty and community independence which the Constitution of the Union was designed to secure.  With this I enclose the autograph for which you asked…

After the North’s retreat from Reconstruction, Davis’s vision of individual rights, limited government, and white racial superiority still held great sway in the South.

Item #7543, $3,900

Union Soldier Watches the CSS Virginia Bait the Navy at Norfolk, and Describes Growing Confidence the Union Can Sink Her

[CSS VIRGINIA], Autograph Letter Signed. Union soldier’s eyewitness account of seeing the CSS Virginia (Merrimack), Camp Hamilton, Virginia, April 13, 1862. 4 pp., 8 x 10 in.

With: BATTLE OF HAMPTON ROADS. Print. Engraving of the battle, removed from Harper’s Weekly, March 22, 1862, pp. 184-85, 21 x 8 in. Modern color.

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we had but one object in view that was to prevent the Merrimac from running the blockade, which we reasoned she desired to do in order to visit Yorktown and play the old harry with our gunboats there. Directly opposite our hospital within a half mile lay the Nangatuck and on her left our iron gunboat which I heard called 5 different names [the Monitor]…We now have confidence in our ability to sink her if we could have her where we want… our commodore is determined not to attack her off Sewall’s point or about there, as there is not water enough to maneuver his large vessels as well as the risks of their getting aground…, she is certain to be sunk if she ever passes fortress Monroe.

One month after the Battle of Hampton Roads, in which the USS Monitor confronted the CSS Virginia in an hours-long battle of the ironclads, a Union soldier stationed near Fort Monroe details the CSS Virginia’s attempt to draw the Union navy into battle. The Virginia was finally trapped, and Confederates destroyed it to keep it out of Union hands, on May 11th.

Item #24006.01-.02, $3,750

Sherman Endorses the Publication of Butterfield’s Manual

WILLIAM T. SHERMAN, Autograph Letter Signed, to “Messrs Harper Brothers.” “Camp before Vicksburg,” Mississippi, March 29, 1863. 2 pp., 7¾ x 9¾ in.

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In the midst of preparations for the final campaign against Vicksburg, Sherman writes to Harper Brothers concerning the publication of Daniel Butterfield’s Camp and Outpost Duty for Infantry. In a war in which the bulk of combatants were new recruits, the art of training and disciplining men was crucial to battlefield success, making Butterfield’s manual, Hardee’s Tactics, and other books essential instructional material. “Should you succeed in this I would advise its publication in … on linen paper, as to be carried in the pockets of officers on outpost duty and such as are published on paper should have a pliable leather, waterproof cover for similar reasons. This to be sure would increase its cost, but … increase its real value fourfold…

Item #21785, $3,600

Connecticut Civil War Colonel Sketches Jacksonville, Florida Headquarters, Muses on the Fountain of Youth, Supports Freed Slaves Getting Land and Recognizes their Humanity

[CIVIL WAR]. WILLIAM H. NOBLE, Autograph Letter Signed, to his wife, [Jacksonville, Fla.], [April?] 8, 1864. 16 pp., 8 x 10 in., on 4 folding sheets stitched together.

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Just make up your mind that negro nature & human white nature are very near alike....

Every now & then it is proclaimed with great joy that Mr So & so, some northern nabob or speculator has purchased some rebel plantation & prepares to work the same. … It’s of more consequence locally & nationally, thus the negro should buy & toil as he surely will on his acre of land, than that princely men in Illinois should have inserted his loose change in a southern plantation.

Connecticut native William H. Noble, writing to his wife, responds to rumors of the fountain of youth, vilifies northerner plantation renters who continued the Southern system as new feudal barons, and calls for the redistribution of plantations to former slaves to ensure national stability. Jacksonville, Florida, was occupied and then abandoned by the Union four times. The result was a broken, skeletal city at the Civil War’s conclusion.

Noble reflects on how the African Americans’ freedom will change Southern and national life, and that regardless of race, he believed human nature was the same. Further, the former slaves needed an interest in and responsibility for their own advancement. Presaging Booker T. Washington, he thinks developing industry more important than carpetbaggers coming south offering education. With a detailed sketch of headquarters in Jacksonville, including tents, stables, and the brigade flagstaff.

Item #23878, $3,500

“Black bellied Yankees” at The Battle of Fort Blakely

FREDERICK MORTIMER CRANDAL, Autograph Letter Signed, to Julian E. Bryant. “Up the Alabama,” April 25, 1865. 4 pp.

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A Union colonel, in command of the 48th Regiment of U.S. Colored Troops, writes to his friend, Col. Julian E. Bryant, of the 46th Regiment of U.S.C.T., recounting his regiment’s  part in the Battle of Fort Blakely. “We have had hard marching & hard fighting. A week in trenches & a successful charge. The ‘Black bellied Yankee’ made their mark … everyone gives us credit for doing well & I think we did excellently well.My loss was not very heavy, not over thirty all told. The other Regts in my Brigade suffered much more severely on the last charge, I being held in reserve & not being under fire but a few moments, they did gallantly…

Item #21813, $3,000

A Day After Grant’s Capture of Fort Henry, Confederate General Lovell Weakens New Orleans in a Futile Attempt to Shore Up Fort Donelson

MANSFIELD LOVELL, Autograph Letter Signed, to Albert Sidney Johnston. New Orleans, La., February 7, 1862. 1 p., 8 x 11 in.

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In February 1862, General Mansfield Lovell sends reinforcements to Albert Sidney Johnston, the chief Confederate commander in the West, so he can defend Nashville and Fort Donelson. The move was fruitless; Fort Donelson fell to Union troops a week after this letter was written.

Item #21776, $2,900

New York Draft Riots: “A Great Fraud”

[NEW YORK DRAFT RIOTS], Broadside. New York: Workingmen’s Democratic Republican Association, [November, 1863]. 1 p.

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Rare broadside printed four months after the New York Draft Riots, reflecting working class reaction against the politicians who misled the people into taking part in the riots. Signed in print by “A Democratic Workingman.”

Item #21788, $2,800

“Copperheads Vigorously Prosecuting Peace: Is it the Peace YOU Want?”

[CIVIL WAR], Broadside, “Copperheads Vigorously Prosecuting Peace. Is it the Peace You Want?” c. March 1863. 1 p., 15½ x 23½ in.

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Read what they say…  Abraham Lincoln has usurped power, violated the Constitution, and put in peril the liberties of the people, but Jeff. Davis has not…. The South may make war on the North, but the North must not defend itself.... They have not a word to say in behalf of the Union, and our own imperiled liberties…

The Peace Democrats, or Copperheads, were a vocal minority of Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and the administration of President Abraham Lincoln, and were willing to recognize an independent Confederacy. This anti-Copperhead broadside, probably printed for the 1863 Connecticut gubernatorial, turns the resolutions of the February 1863 Hartford Convention against the Copperheads.

At top, a caricature shows Copperheads attacking Lady Liberty, who is holding a Union shield. First published in Harper’s Weekly on February 28, 1863, over the title, “The Copperhead Party.—In Favor of a Vigorous Prosecution of Peace!” this cartoon came to symbolize all those who opposed the Lincoln administration’s conduct of the war.

Item #23005, $2,750

Charles Sumner Discusses the Emerging Duty
of the United States in Promoting Human Rights &
World Peace Evoking the Declaration of Independence and Championing Louis Kossuth and his Exploits

CHARLES SUMNER, Autograph Letter Signed, Boston, October 26, 1851. 4 pp., 7 x 9 in.

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“The influence, we are now able to wield, is a sacred trust, which should be exercised firmly, discreetly, in conformity with the Laws of Nations & with an anxious eye to the peace of the world, so as always to promote the great cause of Human Rights. Our example can do much”

Item #20287, $2,750

A Confederate General Warns His Commanders
Not to Harass the Locals

[CONFEDERACY]. JOHN ECHOLS, Broadside. General Orders. Dublin [Virginia], September 5, 1864. 12 x 10 ½ in.

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Foraging during wartime often pits an army against its supporters in the civilian population. In his final month of departmental command before returning to the Army of Northern Virginia, Confederate Brigadier General John Nichols warning his soldiers not to molest citizens or their property.

Item #23271, $2,600
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