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“MEN OF COLOR To Arms! To Arms!”

Frederick Douglass, Broadside. “Men of Color / To Arms! To Arms!” Philadelphia: U.S. Steam-Power Book and Job Printing Establishment, Ledger Buildings, Third and Chestnut Streets, [ca. mid-June to mid-July, 1863.] Signed in type by Frederick Douglass and 54 others, including many prominent African American citizens. 1 p., 44 x 87 in.; framed to 48 x 94 in.

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A monumental Frederick Douglass Civil War recruiting broadside.

This most dramatic and important recruiting poster signals a seismic shift in policy. African American men had joined Union forces in limited numbers from the start of the Civil War, but it took Abraham Lincoln’s signing of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, to officially allow, encourage, and remove barriers to their enlistment.

Item #22552,

AN EXTRAORDINARY RARITY!
Leaves From George Washington’s Own Draft of His First Inaugural Address

GEORGE WASHINGTON, Autograph Manuscript, Pages 27-28, 35-36, and 47-48 of Washington's own draft of his undelivered inaugural address. [written ca. January 1789]. 6 pp. on 3 leaves, 7 x 9 in.

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“This Constitution, is really in its formation a government of the people”

George Washington understood that the new government’s success, as had the Constitutional Convention’s, rested squarely on his shoulders. He also knew that everything he did as the first president would set precedents for future generations. He wrote privately about the promise, ambiguity, and tension of high office, and these same themes are woven throughout his original, undelivered inaugural address. Would the government work as intended, or suffer death from a thousand cuts? Still, the former Commander in Chief recognized the nation’s potential, as well as the honorable men who had come together to build the Constitution.

The three unique leaves—six pages—offered here are written entirely in Washington’s hand. They include assertions that government power is derived from the people, and a highly significant section of the Address explicitly arguing that the Constitution is subject to amendment and, by implication, advocating the adoption of the Bill of Rights. They also include the oratorical climax of the address—arguably the most visionary and impassioned passage of the address.

Item #24818, PRICE ON REQUEST

Anti-Catholic “Test Oath” Signed by George Washington – as Required to Validate his Military Commission as Lieutenant Colonel at the Outset of the French and Indian War

GEORGE WASHINGTON, Manuscript Document Signed, [March 19, 1754]. With signatures of more than a dozen others, dating from Feb. 3, 1754 to Aug. 19, 1755. John West, Jr. and James Towers, whose signatures immediately follow Washington’s, subscribed on the same day, and, along with several other signers, served with Washington in the 1754 campaign. The subscribers, all Fairfax County, Va. public officials and militiamen, signed starting on the right side of the paper; a second column was then added to the left.

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“there is no Transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lords supper or in the elements of Bread and wine...”

On March 15, 1754, Governor Robert Dinwiddie enclosed Washington’s commission as lieutenant colonel of the Virginia regiment in a letter directing the young officer and his men to the Ohio Valley to help defend against approaching French forces. Four days later, Washington signed this “test oath” – required of all Virginia civil and military officers – validating his commission. He would soon find himself at the center of a battle that ignited war between Britain and France, and a defeat that led him to sign the only surrender of his entire career.

Ironically, Washington’s signature on this document launched the military and political career that eventually proved instrumental in expanding the religious freedoms that this oath sought to restrict.

Note that we have agreed to steer this to a philanthropic individual, foundation or company willing to acquire and donate this to George Washington’s Mount Vernon or the Fairfax County Circuit Court Archives. Details on request.

Item #23200, PRICE ON REQUEST

Henry Clay’s “In Defense of the American System”: Pre-Speech Outline and Final Manuscript Sent For Publication of One of the Most Important Economic and Political Speeches in American History

HENRY CLAY, This remarkable offering consists of two unique steps in the creation and dissemination of his speech: 1) Clay’s 21-page autograph manuscript notes, used to prepare for or deliver the speech in the Senate, plus 2) Clay’s 67-page autograph manuscript signed, preparing and delivering the text to the printer. With a copy of the published text, Speech of Henry Clay, in Defence of the American System, against the British Colonial System: with an Appendix, by Gales & Seaton, 1832, 43 pp., 2/2/1832.

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Henry Clay’s philosophy of developmental capitalism focused on achieving economic independence and national self-sufficiency, allowing the United States to grow internally and expand its reach into global markets. His “American System,” spelled out while Speaker of the House in 1824, included four main components: tariffs to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to control the money supply and foster commerce; federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other “internal improvements” to move products, services, and capital to markets; and high prices for public land to generate revenue for the federal government. His system was designed to balance states’ rights with national interests. Though the industrializing northeast, the predominantly agricultural west and the cotton-growing south had diverging interests, the plan supported the growth of the whole.

But in 1828, with low-priced imports driving northern industries out of business, revisions were called for. In theory aiming to protect American manufactures and forestall even higher future rates, the “Tariff of Abominations” was actually designed to fail. Southerners opposed to tariffs joined in writing the bill, adding heavy taxes on materials imported by New England. Despite the ploy’s success in galvanizing opposition, the bill surprisingly garnered just enough votes to pass, aided by members willing to sacrifice short term and sectional interests in favor of longer term national benefits. Knowing that it would be a political liability, President John Quincy Adams still signed it into law. Higher tariffs resulted in higher prices and reduced British exports to the U.S., which impacted Britain’s ability to pay for Southern cotton. And Westerners, though appreciating tariff support for agriculture, disliked the high price for public lands, believing that northeastern factory owners sought to prevent westward migration that would deplete the labor pool and force higher wages—and in turn keeping the region underrepresented in Congress. Both southerners and westerners distrusted the Bank of the United States, which they viewed as only a prop for northeastern manufacturers. 

Clay and his supporters sought to make adjustments while preserving the general policy, but the whole system came under increasing attack, especially in South Carolina.  In January 1832, Senator Robert Y. Hayne (1791-1839) gave a noted speech assaulting the Tariff of Abominations. Over three days in early February, Clay, having just been elected to the Senate, gave a masterful response that is widely regarded as one of the most important speeches in American history. (Later that same year, Hayne would chair the South Carolina Nullification Convention, a bold challenge to federal authority that was firmly opposed by Jackson.

Item #23830, PRICE ON REQUEST
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The News in 1815: 104 Issues of the Boston Patriot

[WAR OF 1812], Newspapers. January 1815 to December 30, 1815 (Vol. XII, no. 34 - vol. XIV, no. 33). Boston, Mass., Davis C. Ballard. 104 issues, each 4 pp., 14 x 20 1/8 in. Bound in 19th-century quarter calf and marbled boards. With some column-width engraved illustrations.

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Item #20655,

Male Anti-Suffragist Ridicules “Taxation without Representation” Argument of Suffragists

[WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE]. FREDERICK DWIGHT, Pamphlet. “Taxation and Suffrage,” New York: New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, ca. 1915-1917. 4 pp., 6 x 9 in.

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New York attorney Frederick Dwight insists in this brief pamphlet that women’s inability to vote bears no parallel to the American colonists’ protest of “taxation without representation.”

Item #24174.06, $75

The Israeli Tourism Director Dishes on James Michener

YOHANAN BEHAM, Typed Letter Signed “YBeham” to Sylvia Lyons. Jerusalem, October 23, 1963. On stationery of the Prime Minister’s Office. 1 p., 6½ x 8¼ in.

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Item #20338.01, $80

Freedom and Public Faith. Speech of William H. Seward, on the Abrogation of the Missouri Compromise, in the Kansas and Nebraska Bills

[WILLIAM H. SEWARD; KANSAS-NEBRASKA], Pamphlet. Freedom and Public Faith. Speech of William H. Seward, on the Abrogation of the Missouri Compromise, in the Kansas and Nebraska Bills. Senate of the United States, February 17, 1854. Washington: Buell & Blanchard. 1854. 16 pp.

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Item #23739.01, $95

English Sociologist and Novelist Martineau Signs a Note

HARRIET MARTINEAU, Autograph Note Signed. Address leaf, n.p. n.d.

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Item #21678.25, $100

Reporting Lincoln’s Journey to Washington
for His Inauguration

[ABRAHAM LINCOLN], Newspaper. New York Times, New York, N.Y., February 23, 1861. 8 pp.

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Item #30000.79, $100

Lincoln Reviews the Army of the Potomac

[ABRAHAM LINCOLN], Newspaper. Harper’s Weekly, May 2, 1863. 16 pp., complete, disbound.

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Collecting confiscated rebel cotton. Ironclad Keokuk sinking after the battle at Charleston. Pres. Lincoln, General Hooker, and their staff at a review of the Army of the Potomac. Bombardment of Fort Sumter.

Item #H-5-2-1863, $100

Union Soldier Tells His Wife of the Rebel Attack on New Bern, North Carolina

HENRY PICKFORD, Fragment of Autograph Letter Signed, to his wife Sarah Pickford, c. March 1863. 2 pp.

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we had quite an excitement in Newbern about a week ago the rebels made three or four attacks on the City and were finally repulsed we lost one man on board of one of the Gunboats that is all

Item #21265.13, $140

New York Soldier Tells His Sister They Plan to Finish the War Soon

RICHARD SLADE, Autograph Letter Signed, to his sister Mary A. Slade, March 10, 1865, 3 pp.

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Those four legged Grey backs have about played out but there is a plenty of two legged ones here yet....We are going to try & Cleanse out these Johneys this summer & come home next winter

Item #21265.11, $150

The Border Ruffian Code in Kansas

[BLEEDING KANSAS], Pamphlet. The Border Ruffian Code in Kansas. [New York: Tribune Office. 1856.] 15, [1] pp. Concludes with full page (8.75 x 5.75 in.) map, “Freedom and Slavery, and the Coveted Territories.”

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This tract provides an example of the laws “notoriously forced upon the people of that Territory, at the hands of invading ruffians from Missouri, using the persuasive arguments of the Bowie-Knife and Revolver....” Included are the three Presidential platforms for the 1856 election, and a special map: “Freedom and Slavery, and the Coveted Territories,” printed on the last page.

Item #23739.03, $150

Lincoln, the War, and Emancipation

[EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION], Newspaper. Harper’s Weekly, June 11, 1864. 16 pp., complete, disbound.

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Featuring illustrations of Philadelphia Sanitary Fair Central buildings, and Generals Gouverneur Warren and Horatio Wright on the front page. “Belle Plain, Virginia General Grant’s Late Base of Supplies”; “Army of the Potomac—General Warren Rallying the Marylanders”; “President Lincoln and His Secretaries”; Centerfold: “Army of the Potomac—Struggle for the Salient, near Spottsylvania [sic], Virginia, May 12, 1864”; three illustrations of the environs of Spottsylvania [sic] Court House; “Sherman’s Advance—General Logan’s Skirmishes Advancing Toward: the Railroad at Resaca”; and “Sherman’s Advance—Position of Osterhau’s Division on Bald Hill.”

Item #H 6-11-1864, $150

Three Special Orders Signed
by Gen. Townsend Re. Capt. Abbott

EDWARD D. TOWNSEND. Brig. Gen. and Assistant Adjutant General, 3 Special Orders Signed, from the Adjutant-General’s Office, War Department, to (and docketed by) Capt. Henry L. Abbott, Colonel of Volunteers, Corps of Topographical Engineers, variously under Generals Barnard, Banks, &c. Henry L. Abbott (1831-1927) commanded the Army of the Potomac’s siege artillery at Petersburg. For this and other recognizable services during the war, he was brevetted brigadier general.

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Item #20577.01-.03, $160

Lincoln Raises the Flag

[ABRAHAM LINCOLN], Newspaper. Harper’s Weekly, March 9, 1861. 16 pp., complete, disbound.

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President Lincoln hoisting the 34-star American flag on Independence Hall, Philadelphia, with his speech. United States arsenal at Little Rock, Arkansas surrendered to the state troops. Interior of the new dome of the capitol at Washington. Front view of Fort Pickens, Pensacola. Inauguration of Pres. Jefferson Davis at Montgomery, Alabama.

Item #H-3-9-1861, $160

Board of Engineers to Review Sea Coast Fortifications, Including New York

EDWARD D. TOWNSEND, Document Signed, printed Special Orders No. 41, Jan. 27, 1864. Creating and Appointing Abbot to a Board of Engineers to review Sea Coast Fortifications, especially New York Harbor.

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Item #20577.04, $175

Kansas-Lecompton Convention. Speech of Senator Douglas, of Illinois, on the President’s Message

[STEPHEN H. DOUGLAS; LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION], Pamphlet. Kansas-Lecompton Convention. Speech of Senator Douglas, of Illinois, on the President’s Message. Delivered in the Senate of the United States, December 9, 1858. Washington: Buell & Blanchard. 1858. 16 pp. Inscribed in period ink, “From Hon. John Sherman.”

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Item #23739.02, $175

World War I Fight for Woman Suffrage in New York Discussed in Global Context

[WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE], Printed Document. “Suffrage as a War Measure,” New York: National Woman Suffrage Publishing Co., October 1917. 4 pp.

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Men of New York State don’t wait until the war is over to admit the justice and necessity of woman suffrage here. For the sake of the strength it will add to the nation, vote for woman Suffrage November 6.

The New York State Woman Suffrage Party draws on international examples and women’s contributions to the war effort to urge New York men to vote for woman suffrage.

Item #24174.03, $200
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