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General Washington Orders Declaration of Independence Read to Army in New York
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the Honble Continental Congress … haveing been plead to Desolve Connection Between this country & great Britain & to declare the united Colonys of North America free & Independent States the Several Brigades are to be Drawn us [up] this Evening on their Respective Parades at 6 oclock when the Deleration of Congress Shewing the grounds & Reasons of the Measures to be Read with Laudable [audible] Voice the genl [George Washington] Hopes that this important Point will serve as a fresh incentive to Every officer and soldier to act with fidelity & courage as knowing that now the Peace and Safety of this country Depends under god solely on the success of our arms....” (July 9, 1776)

the gel being informed to his great surprize that a Report prevails & Industrously spread far and wide that Lord how [British General Lord William Howe] has made <145> Propositions of Peace Calculated by disguiseing Persons most Probably To Lull us into a fatal Security his Duty obliges him to Declare that No such offer has been made by Lord how but on the Contrarary from the Best inteligence he can Procure the army may Expect atack as soon as the wind and tide proves favorable He hopes theirfore every mans mind & arms may be Prepared for action and when caled to it shew our enemies & the whole world that free men Contendin for their own Land are Superior to any Mercenaries on Earth.... (August 20th 1776)

Remarkable 1776 manuscript orderly book, evidently kept for Brigadier General Gold S. Silliman’s Connecticut militia, containing two separate versions of Washington’s famous General Orders of July 9, 1776, in which he announced to the Continental Army that Congress had formally declared the 13 colonies to be independent of Great Britain. Washington ordered that the momentous text be proclaimed before all assembled troops in and around New York.

[DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE]. Manuscript Orderly Book. Headquarters [New York City], [July 8, 1776 – August 21, 1776]. Containing two overlapping sequences in different hands: one 145-page sequence runs from July [9], 1776 to August 21, 1776, and another 13-page segment (written from the other end of the book) runs from July 8-13, 1776. 158 pp. 7½ x 6 in. Both versions vary slightly from the published text of Washington’s General Orders of July 9. This volume, with Brigade and Regimental orders, was either kept by battalion adjutant Aaron Comstock or an orderly sergeant in one of Gold S. Silliman’s eight companies enlisted in Connecticut shortly before. This is likely the battalion’s first orderly book after arriving in New York with approximately 415 men.

Inventory #21461.99       Price: $125,000

Historical Background

During the evening following the public reading of the Declaration of Independence, the impassioned celebrations in Manhattan culminated in the toppling and destruction of the grand, gilded equestrian statue of King George III at the foot of Broadway at Bowling Green. The balance of the book contains a detailed record of the New York garrison and its affairs while it and its commander awaited the long-expected British assault. The present orderly book ends ominously on August 21, the day General Sir William Howe led the British to Gravesend, Brooklyn, out of which he launched a successful campaign to conquer Long Island and Manhattan.

Orderly books were the primary documents for organizing day-to-day life within the army. The process of updating orderly books was a logistical nightmare. The officer serving in the rotating position of major general of the day communicated orders to the adjutant general. Early each morning, meeting at Washington’s headquarters, the adjutant general read aloud, while division adjutants copied the orders into their own orderly books. The division adjutants then met with their brigade majors and repeated the process of dictation, adding any division orders. Brigade majors then met with regimental adjutants, again reading the orders aloud for regimental adjutants to copy down. Finally, the regimental adjutants met with all of the first or orderly sergeants of their regiment’s companies to repeat the process. The quality of the transmission depended on the oral presentation, speed, ability, and level of literacy of the adjutants involved, so the wording from headquarters was often garbled by the time it reached regimental and company orderly books.

In late August 1776, the American forces in New York consisted of 30,000 men in more than 70 regiments and battalions of Continental Army soldiers and militia. These regiments and battalions were organized into thirteen brigades, eleven of which were grouped into five divisions. If each regiment had eight companies, there would have been more than 650 orderly books updated daily in this army alone, from those kept in Washington’s headquarters down to the orderly books in each company.

Gold S. Silliman was commissioned colonel on June 20. Seven battalions had enlisted in Connecticut in the summer of 1776 under the overall command of Brigadier General James Wadsworth. This volume, with Brigade and Regimental orders, was either kept by battalion adjutant Aaron Comstock or an orderly sergeant in one of Silliman’s eight companies. This is likely the battalion’s first orderly book after arriving in New York with approximately 415 men.

There are three other extant orderly books from Wadsworth’s Brigade, each beginning on July 10, 1776 (while this began on July 9). Those three are in institutions: Mattatuck Historical Society, Waterbury, CT; Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York, New York City; and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Two of them are from Colonel William Douglas’ Fifth Battalion and one is from Colonel John Chester’s Sixth Battalion; no other orderly books from Colonel Silliman’s First Battalion are known to have survived.

Gold S. Silliman (1732-1790) was a Yale graduate, lawyer, and crown attorney before the War. He was commissioned colonel of a battalion on June 20, 1776, and for a time served in command of the brigade. Silliman commanded a brigade of militia during the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, and later worked with Benedict Arnold to beat back William Tryon’s raid on Danbury in April, 1777. He was captured by Tories in 1779, and it was not until May 1780 that he regained his freedom. His son, Benjamin, was to become the first professor of science at Yale, and an innovator in the distillation of petroleum.

First Battalion, Wadsworth’s Brigade (1776). The Connecticut legislature passed an act in June 1776 for the enlistment of seven militia battalions in response to General George Washington’s call for reinforcements in New York City. Brigadier General James Wadsworth (1730-1817) commanded the entire brigade, and Colonel Gold S. Silliman commanded the first of the seven battalions. The battalion served on the Brooklyn front a few days before and during the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776. It retreated to New York City on August 29 and 30, and nearly escaped capture during the evacuation of New York City on September 15. The battalion was posted on Washington Height during the Battle of White Plains on October 28. The term of the battalion expired on December 25, 1776, though many officers and men reenlisted in the Continental Line of 1777.

Provenance

Collected shortly after the war by Ebenezer Hazard (1744-1817), Philadelphia-born & Princeton-educated New York postmaster (1775), Surveyor General of the Continental Post Office (1776), Postmaster General under Articles of Confederation (1782-1789); First Secretary of the Insurance Co. of North America (1792); and an early member of the New York Historical Society (1810); his descendants. Fred Shelly, “Ebenezer Hazard: America’s First Historical Editor,” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series 12 (January 1955), 44-73.

Partial Transcript

                                                                        [July 9, 1776]

Desation [desertion] were sentenced to Receive 39 Lashes each the Genl Approves the conduct & orders them Executed at the usual Place & Time Passes to go from the city are hereafter to be granted by Jno Brincer, Henry Wilmot and John Bay Junr a Commitee of the City appointed to that Purpose officers of the Ferries and ? as to be careful in Makeing this Regulation Known to ye Centries Who are to see that the papers are signed by one of ye above Persons and to be carefull no soldier goes over the ferries without a Pass from a genl Officer the North River gard to be moved to the Markett house Near the Ferry Stares as soon as it is filled up the Continental Congress haveing been Pleased to allow a Chaplain to Each Regt with Pay of 33 Dollars & ⅓ per Month the Colo or Commanding officer of Each Regt are Directed to inpower Chaplains of accordingly Parsons of good Character Eemplary Lives to <2> See yt Inferior officers & Soldiers pay them Suitable Respect & attend Carefully upon Religious Exercises the Blessing of and Protection of Heavens are at all times Necessary but Especially so in time of Publick Distress & Danger the genl hopes & trusts that Every officer & man will endevour to Live & act as becomes a Christian a Soldier Defending the Dear Rights & Liberties of his Country one Subt 2 Serjts [2 Corpls] & 30 men to mount gard at the City hall to take their orders from Brigr Lord Sterling to morrow Morning on the grand parade the Honble Continental Congress Impelled By the Dictates of Duty Policy & Necessity haveing been plead to Desolve Connection Between this country & great Britain & to declare the united Colonys of North America free & Independent States the Several Brigades are to be Drawn us [up] this Evening on their Respective Parades at 6 oclock when the Deleration of Congress Shewing the grounds & Reasons <3> of the Measures to be Read with Laudable [audible] Voice the genl Hopes that this important Point will serve as a fresh incentive to Every officer and soldier to act with fidelity & courage as knowing that now the Peace and Safety of this country Depends under god solely on the success of our arms & that he is now in the Service of a State Possesed of Sufficient Power to reward his merit and advance him to the highest honours of a free country the Brigade major are to receive at the adjt genl office several of the Declarations to be Delivered to Brigrs and Coll of Regts the Briggades Majors are Excused from further Attendance at head Qrs Except to Receive the orders of the Day that their time & attendance may be withdrawn as Little as Possible from the Dutys of their respective Brigades.[1] Brigedear for the Day genl Scott Field officers for the Piquit Col Drake Lieut. Col Nixson & major Fay Brigade Major for the Day Willis New York July 10th 1776 The Colls to give into the Brigadr <4> genl a List of the officers according to the Rank and Senority as Perfectly as they can that the Col or Commanding officer of Each Regt Immediately give the commanding officers of Each Comp Necessary orders for Procureing tea water for his company also the Necessary orders for having the arms Viewed by Capt frances & that they be forthwith supplyed 24 Rounds to a man and flints if wanted that no Sodier off Duty absent himself from [Quarters] further than the call of the Drum without ? or Leave of his officers & that Coll Gays Regt. furnish the genl Gard to morrow A working Party of 150 Men Properly officered to atend to morrow morning with their arms Near Labourity [laboratory] to morrow morning at 6 o Clock to take 3 days Provision the commanding officer to come to head Qurs for orders the Quarter master Genl to Provide tents genl Heaths Brigade in stead of Repareing to their alaram Post to morrow morning to hold themselves in Readiness to march as they wil Receive orders from Brigr on the Parade at 4 oclock the Brigr will attend at head <5> Qrs this afternoon for the orders  John Butler of Capt Bridghams Comp Coll Bailys Regt haveing been tryed by a general court marshall whereof Col Read was President found gilty of Desertion & sentanced to Receive 39 Lashes the genl confirms ye Sentence & orders it to be Executed at the usual time & Place the Genl Douts not the Persons who Pulled Down & Mutalated the Stature in the Broad way Last Night Actuated by Zeal in the Publick way Last Night in the Public cause yet it has so much the appearance of Riot and want of order in the army yet he Disapproves of the manners & Directs that in futur such things shall be avoided by the soldiery & Left to be Executed by Proper Authority Brigr officers for the day Genl wadsworth Field officers the Piquit Coll Willis Lieut Coll Stoutenburgh & major Smith Brigad Major for the Day Hoops

                                                                        Head Quarters July 21st 1776

P. C. Wm Baker of Capt Johnstons Company in Coll Wyllis Regt Chargd with absenting himself Several Days from the Comp without Permission having been tryd by a genl Cort Martial whereof Coll Webb was Presidt and found Guilty was Sentenced to receive 20 Lashes the Genl approves the Sentence and orders it Executed at the usual time and Place Serjt Ballard late of <33> Genl Lees Guard now in Custody for having Presumd to give a pass to a person to Cross the the river appearing to have done things more ignorantly the Genl is pleasd forgive him but if any Inferior officer hereafter shall Presume to take such Liberty they will be severely Punishd it being agn Declard that giving Passes to Cityzens or Country men any only Jno Berrian, Henry Wilmott and Jno Ray or one of them Passes to officers and Soldiers by a Major Genl Brigr Genl of the Brigade to which the Persons belong the Adjt Genl Genls Secretary or Aid de Camp the General has great pleasure in Communicating to the officers and soldrs of this army the Signal of success of the american army under Genl Lee at South Carolina[2] the enemy having attempted to Land at the same time that a most furious Canonade for 12 hours was made on the fortifications near Charlestown both fleet and army have been repulsd with great Loss by small Numbers of Gallant troops <34> Just Raisd the Enemy have had 172 men Killed & wounded among whom are Several officers two Capitols Ships much Damagd one Frigate of 28 Guns intirely lost being abandond and Close by the ? and others so hurt that they want Great repair before they can be fit for Service and all the Loss on our Part of ten men Killed and 22 wounded the firmness Courage and bravery of the troops have Crownd them with the martial Honour the Dying heroes Conjurd their brethren Never to abandon their standard of Liberty and was [even] those who Lost their Limbs Continued at their Posts as Gallantry and Spirit extorted Plause over from their enemies who Degected Defeated and Retird to their former stations out of the reach of our troops the Glorious example of troops under like Circumstances with us the Genl hopes will animate and so Every officer and Soldr immatate and outdo them when the enemy shall make the like attempt upon us with such a bright Example before us with what <35> be done by brave and Spirited men fighting in Defence of their Country we Shall be Loaded with a Double share of shame if we do not acquit ourselves Determined to Conquer or Die with the Confidence of this army will have its equal Share of honour and Success the Genl most earnestly exerts every officer and Soldr to pay the utmost intention to his arms and health to have the former in the best order for action and by Cleanliness and Care to preserve the Latter be exact in their Discipline obedient to their Supperiors and Vigilant on Duty with Such Preparation and a Suitable spirit there can be no Doubt but by the Blessing of Heaven we shall repell our Cruel invaders, Preserve our Country and Gain the Greatest honor. A working Party of 150 Men to be paraded to morrow properly officered in the morning on the Grand Parade with their arms <36> and one Days Provision to go by water to Kings bridge to relieve the Party that went there the 15th Inst. to apply to Genl Putnam for boats the Genl is much Pleasd at the alacrity of the men in Duty fatigue Duty and being resolvd to ease them as much as the Service Permits Direct to that till further orders the men who are to go on fatigue shall be Excused from turning out to their alarm post for that Day except in Case of alarm a working Party Properly offerd to attend Capt Anderson when and where an as long as he shall Direct Brigadr for the Day Genl Heath field officer for the Piquet Coll Wyllis Lieut. Coll Zeduitz Major Smith Brigad major for the Day Wyllis

                                                                        [Head Quarters July 26th 1776]

<52>… the persons who supplies the Camp with beer has represented that must stop his business if his Barrels are not returnd the Genl therefore Orders that the Coll of the several Regts do strictly charge the Qr Mr to take Care of the Beer Barrels and prevent them from being Cut up <53> for tubs as hereafter there will be an account kept of every Regt and the Different Barrels Chargd to such Regts or Qr Mr if he Does not attend the Commissary Genl [will deliver] Pork Barrels to any Regt who will apply to him for to be Cut up for tubs.

<66>  Regt orders                                                        New York August 1st 1776

That no officers nor Soldiers of any Company do by any means present to march to their alarm Post or Prayers without their arms cartrige Box & cartriges compleat in Every Respect for amediate action as we know not how soon we shall Be called to use them their having this day Erived a Large fleet of our enemies Ships and Troops it is with Extreem Concern that I observe such a Spirit of Ensolence & Neglect Prevail in the Regment that ye orders I Essued out in the Regt on the 23d of Last month seemeth not to have the Least Etention paid to it by the officers they are therefore Directed to turn Back and Read that order & it is Expected that they punctualy Comply with that for the futer and Daly Perade their men and Exercize them according to that order and not hearafter Be found walking abroad at a time <67> when they ought to be at Exercise to the scandol of Ever good officer & they are to take Notice that their futer Neglect of Duty will not be Passed over G S Silaman Coll

The Adjatant to make Returns to me Every Night at 9 oClock of the Number of men from Each Company warnd for duty the Next Day and of any officer warnd for Duty by name that I may now who is in the Fault

Parole

Counter                                                           Head Qur August 1

Coll grays Regt of Genl Wadsworth Brigad to go over to Long Island to morrow morning  their to take their orders from Genl Green it is with great concern the Genl understands that jealousies have arisen <68> Amongst the Troops from the Different Provinces & Reflections frequently throun out which can only tend to Iratate Each other & Ingers the Noble Cause we are ingaged in and which we ought to support with one hand and one harte the Genl most Ernestly Intreets officers and Soldiers to concider the Consequence that they can no way asist our Cruel Enemies more affectualy than making Devisions amongst ourselves that the honour and success of the army & the safety of our Bleeding Country Depends upon Harmony & good agreement with Each other that the Provinces are all united to opose the Enemy and all Distinction sunk in the Name of an american to make this honorable & Preserve the Liberty of our Country ought to be our Emulation & he <69> will be the Best Soldier & the Best Patriot who contributes most to his Gloryous work what Ever his Station or from what Ever part of the Continent he may come Let all Distinctions of Nations Countrys and provinces therefore be Lost in the genl Contest who shall Behave with the most Courage against the Enemy and the most kindness and good humour to each other if their are any officers & soldiers so lost to vurtue and a love of their Country as to continue in such Practices after this order the Genl assures and is directed by Congress to Declare to the whole army that Persons shall be surely punished Dismissed out of the service with Disgrace Brigadear for the day Gl wadsworth Field officers for the picket Coll word Lieut Col Hull Major Philips for main guard Liut Col munson Brigeder Major Gordon <70>

Brigade orders                                                            New York August the 1st 1776

That every one may be Properly Informed of his duty as a soldier & that no one when Charged with neglect or violation of his Duty may attend to Justify or Extenuate his crime by pleading ignorance in the premises the commanding officer of Each company is to cause the Rules and Regulations for the government of the army Established by the Continentall Congress to be Red to his company Every week Coll Chesters Regt to furnish the genl Guard tomorrow Coll Silaman to send a serjant to head Quarters adjatint for the Day Falmage

Regmental after orders New York 1 of August

Whereas there is as yet no Drum major nor fife major appointed in my Regment William Semer of Capt mead Company is apointed Drum major and David Hughes of Capt Bosticks company is apointed Fife <71> Major & they are Directed carefully to attend to the Dutes of their Respective officers

                                                                                    Gold S. Sillaman Col

                                                                        Head Quarters August 11th 1776

No Forlow or Discharge are after this day to be given to officers or Soldiers without the knowledge or Consent of the Commander in Chief when <106> an Action is hourly Expected a Case Must be very Extraordinary which can warrant an Application of this kind but if such is to happen the Colls are to Sattisfy their Brigadear in it first if the Brigadears concur in it they are then to apply to Head Quarters from whence Fulows are to be Essued till further orders The Honourable Continental Congress Having been Pleased to allow a Paymaster to Each of the Established Regts & Directed the genl to appoint them He desires ye field officers of Every Regt to Recomend to him sutable Persons they are to Be Persons of Integrity & Fidelity good acoumptants & Fair <107> writers The Pay is 26 ⅔ Dollars pr Callander Month when a person is put under guard the officer sending him is not only to put Down the Crime he stands Charged with But the Regt and Company to which he belongs & should also note the witnesses names to Prove the charge the Court marshell to send to morrow as a Court of Enquiry upon Liut Mercier of Col Lashers Regt for misbehavior to his superior officers Joseph Martin of Capt Hurds Company & Col Silamans Regiment Tryed by Genl Court Marshel of which Colo Willis was President for abusing & Robbing a Woman is aquited for want of Evidence Hugh Cohaggon a Transient Person & Richard Kief belonging to Colo <108> Nixsons Regt Convicted by the same Court marshel for Stealing a Coat several Fierlocks from Capt Diersons Company was sentanced to Receive 39 Lashes Each the Genl approves the above Sentances and orders Martin to be Discharged and the sentance upon Cohaggen & Kief to be Executed to morrow morning at guard mounting a Drummer from Each Regt in Brigad to attend the Executing ye Sentance upon Cohaggon & then to be Drumed out of the company & taken up if Ever found in it again ye practice of sentries seting Down while on there Post is so unsoldirey that ye genl is a shamed to see it Prevale so much in the army at Night aspetialy it is of the most Dangerous Consequences as it ocations a sentinel sleeping on his Post when other wise he would be <109> Watchfull the genl Requests the officers espetialy those of guard & visiting Rounds to causion the Soldiers against it & haveing all Conveniences for that Purpose Removed officers & Soldiers will be very carefull in case of Damp weather to have there Arms kept Dry & fit for action....

                                                                        [Head Quarters August 13 1776]

the Enemies whole Reinforcement is now arived so that an attack must & will soon be made the genl their fore again Requests ernestly that Every officer and Soldier have their arms & aminition in the Best order keep within their Quarters & Encampment as much as possible & be Ready For Action at a moments warning call and when caled Remember that Liberty Property Life and Honour are all at Stake that upon their Courage & conduct Rests the hopes of their bleeding & insulted Country that their wives children Expect safety from them only & that we have all the Reason to Expect Heavens will Sucseed us in so great a Cause the Enemy will indevour to intimidate us by Show & appearance But Remember how they have Been Repulsed on various occations By a few <120> brave americans their cause is Bad their men conscious of it & if opposed with firmness & coolness at first onset with our advantage of the works and knowledge of the ground the victory is most certainly ours Every good soldier will be silent & attentive wait their orders & Reserve his fire till he is shure of Doing Execution....

                                                                        [Head Quarters the 16th August 1776]

unless orders are atended to and Executed they are of no consequence and the greatest disorders will insue the gel theirfore Requests that the officers will be very <133> carefull not only that the orders be made known to the men but that they see themselves that they are Executed if Every one in his own Department will Exert themselves For this purpose it would have the most happy affect the Badness of the weather has undoubted prevented an atack as the Enemies troops have Been imbarked some time ye gel theirfore Directs that two day Provisions be kept Ready Dressed by the troops and their canteens filled with watter so that the men may be prepared otherwise in case of atack they will suffer very much all tents to be struck on the alarm been given....

                                                                        [Head Quarters August 20th 1776]

the gel being informed to his great surprize that a Report prevails & Industrously spread far and wide that Lord how [British General Lord William Howe] has made <145> Propositions of Peace Calculated by disguiseing Persons most Probably To Lull us into a fatal Security his Duty obliges him to Declare that No such offer has been made by Lord how but on the Contrarary from the Best inteligence he can Procure the army may Expect atack as soon as the wind and tide proves favorable He hopes theirfore every mans mind & arms may be Prepared for action and when caled to it shew our enemies & the whole world that free men Contendin for their own Land are Superior to any Mercenaries on Earth....

[From rear of volume, inverted pages:]

New York ? 1776

Regemental orders: Whereas Gold S. Solamans Regt is ordered ?? Market in this Citty the Water Pumps being Brackish and Will tend much to destroy the health of the Soldiers if freely used it is therefore Ordered that the Commanding officer of Each Company Immediately agree with Some one of the [Teawatermen?] to Supply the party under his command with fresh water sufficient for the Week by Bringing in to Head Qtrs a Bill for the Same Whereas ?? Immediately Receive or be Directed ? they shall Immediately receive their money for the Same and it is expected that the officers Will Address their Men against such Water Near the Barracks and also against unnecessary using using such Water ?? <2> <3>

Head Qtrs July 9th 1776

Paroal Counter[sign]

John Evans of Capt Leadyards Comp Colo McDouglases [McDougall] Regt Hopkins Rice of Capt Pierces Comp Moclymers Regement having Been tried By a Genl court marshel Where of Colo Read was president found guilty of Desertion. Were sentenced to Receive 39 Lashes each the General Approves the conduct orders them Executed at the usual place and time.

Passes to go from the city are hereafter to be granted by John Brinker, Henry Wilmor [Wilmot] John By [Ray] Jr. a commite of the City Appointed to that purpose officers of the Ferries and Wharves to be careful in makeing this Regulation Known to the Centries Who are to see that the papers are signed By one of the above Persons and to be careful No soldier goes over in the Ferry without a Pass from a General officer. <4>

the North river guard to be removed to the Market House Nere the ferry Stairs as soon as it is filled [fitted] up

The Continental Congress having Been Pleased to allow a chaplain to Each Regt With Pay of 33 Dollars and ⅓ pr Month the Colo or Commanding officers of each Regt are Directed to Empower Chaplains accordingly parsons of good charracters and Examplery Lives to see that Inferior officers and soldiers pay them A suitable Respect and attend Carefully on Religious Exercise the Bliessing and protection of heaven are at all times Necessary But Especially so in time of Publick Distress and Danger the General hopes and trusts that Every officer and soldier Will Endeavor to Live and act as becomes a Soldier Defending the Doors [dearest] Rights and Liberties of his Country one Subbolton [Subaltern] 2 Sergts 2 Corpls and 30 men to Mount Guard at the City hall to take their orders from Brigadier Genl Serling tomorrow Morning on the Grand Perade <5>

The Honourable the Continental Congress Impelled By the Dictates of Duty Policy and Necessity Having Been pleased to Dissolve the Connection Between the Congress and Great Britain and to declare these United Colonies of North America free and independent States the several Brigades are to be Drawn up this evening on their Respective Perades at Six oclock When the Declaration of Congress Showing the grounds and Reasons of these measures is to be Read With a Laudable [audible] voice the General hopes that this important Point? Will Serve as a fresh incentive to officer and soldier to act With fidelity and courage as Knowing that Now the Peace and Safety of this country Depends [(under God)] on the Success of our Arms and that [he] is Now in the Service of the State Possessed of A Sufficient Power to reward his power and to reward the Merit <6> And advance him to the highest honours of a free country the Brigade Majors are to receive at the Adjutants General office several of the Declarations to be Delivered to the Several Brigadrs and Colos of Ridgments the Brigade Majors are Excused from further Attendance at head Quarters Except to Receive the orders of the Day that their time and attendance may be Withdrawn as Little as Possible from the Duty of their respective Brigades[3]

Brigedear for the Day for the Day General Scots Field officer for the Piquet Colo Drake Lieut Colonal Nixon and Major fay Brigade Major for the Day Willys <7>

                                                                        New York July 10th 1776

The Colos to giv in to the Bregedear Genl a list of the officers according to the Rank and Senioriety as Perfectly as they can That the Colo or Commanding officer of Each Regt Immediately give the commanding officer of Each Company Necessary orders for furnishing their companies With Tea Water also Necessary orders for having their arms Viewed by Capt Francis and that they be forthwith supplyed with 24 Rounds to a man and Flints if Wanted that No Soldier of Duty absent himself from Quarters further than the call of the Drum Without Leave of his officer That Colo Pogs? Regt. Furnish the Generals gard tomorrow.

A Working party of a 150 Men officered to attend to Morrow morning With their arms Near Labotory [laboratory] at 6 o Clock to take 3 Days Provision <8> the commanding officers to to come to Head Quarters for his orders the Qtr Maser General to Provid tents Genl Heaths Brigad in stead of Repairing to their Allarm posts to morrow morning to hold themselves in readiness to March as they Will Receive orders From the Brigadier on the Perad at 4 o clock the Brigadier Will attend at Head Quarters this after Noon for the orders John Butler of Capt Bridghams Company Colol Balyes Regt having Been try By a court Martial Whareof Colo Read Was president Found guilty of Desertion and sentenced to Receive 39 Lashes the general confirms the Sentence and ords it to be Executed at the time and Place as usual The General Douts Not the Persons Who Pull Down and Mutulated the Statue in the Broad Way Last Night Was Accuated [by] <9> Zeal in the Publick cause yet it has so Much the Look of a Riot & Want of order in the army that he Disapproves of it and Directs that in future such things shall be avoided By the soldiery and Left to be Executed By proper authority Brigadier for the Day Genl Wardsworth Field officers the Piquit Colo Hillis Lieut Colo Stoutanbur? and Major Smith Bregad Major for the Day Hooper? <10> [repeat of pages 7-8] <11> <12> <13>

Orders

for the Six Cumpany in the Ridgment of the Militia in Connecti[cut]

In Honour of Ser Hobby

Each Soldier Must have a wool hat With a cows tail cockade

With Sheep Skin Jacot and britches wool Side out and Coate of leather lately take from the tanvat likewise Each Soldier Must have a Horse but not his owne with a handkerchief or Barke Bridel with a blanket or Some ground for a Saddel to Meat at Brother Hobbys 3 Sunday in October 10 oclock at ? to March to the Grand Perade Musick lowing Cow and Blating Sheep or Swa mil saw

NB You are to Reply to Sargent Hobby for the above assignment as our march will be Acrost the fields they will be much wanted <14>

                                                                        Head Quarters July 13th 1776

Paroal

Countersign

            The gards at Fort Gorgue to be Reinforced With a Field officer 2 Cap 4 Subalterns 6 Sergeants 6 Corporals and 70 Men The General was very Sorry to observe that yesterday many of the officers and soldiers a Number of the Soldiers instead of attending to their Duty on the Beating of the Drum continued along the Banks of the North River a gaping at the Ships Such Unsoldiery conduct gives every good Officer and the Enemy a mean Opinion of the Army as nothing shows the Brave and good Soldiery more than if in case of an alarm cooly and calmly to repair to his Post and there Waits his orders Whereas a Weak curiocity at such times makes a man look mean and contemptable.

A well Dressed orderly Sergeant from General Scott, General Wadsworth & General Heaths Briggade to attend at head Quarters Every Day the Mager of the New Briggade and other Officers is directed to look <15> over the orderly Book before they come to Camp and acquaint themselves With former orders they are also to be very careful that the Daly orders are delivered so that Neither officers nor Soldiers may plead ignorance as in that case they Will be Deemed answerable.

A Working party of a hundred men properly officered to perade to Morrow morning at 6 oClock. Leonard and Willies Ridgment to receive tools for makeing fashenes they are to take their Dinners with them. Ensign Fields of Leonards to attend this party all the rest of the Regts to attend at the Engineers Store and there to wait for tools and orders continue till further orders.

All who have tools Belonging to the Engineers Store to return them immediately if any Brigade or Regt are excepted from Fategue at any time the Brigade major inform the Engineer thereof that he may proportion What are sent accordingly.

The Safety and Success of the army Depends So Much in haveing the Works in all Possible readiness that the General is Much concerned to find the Brigad Majors Deficient in that part of their Duty only five Regts Laneds Reads <16> Baleys Barrows and Wyllows Regt have turn’d out their Working Party to Day the general hopes this is the last time he shall have occation to take Notice of any Such Neglect. Lost Yesterday Either between Genl Heaths & Deans Distillery or about Head Qrs an old Gold Watch the Case very thin the Dial Plate Gold Grand a Shell Watch Chane without any seal & a Brass Key  any Person Delivering it to the Adjutant Genl Shall Receive Eight Dollars Rewd Brigr for the Day Genl Spencerfield officer for the Regiment Coll. Douglass Lieut Coll Holbord Major Hegoen Brigade Major for the Day Peck

For comparable Orderly Books, see “The Orderly Books of Colonel William Henshaw, October 1, 1775, through October 3, 1776.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s., 57 (1948): 17–234, and “Orderly Book Kept by Capt. Abraham Dodge of Ipswich, January 1, 1776 to August 1, 1776.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 80 (1944): 37–53, 111–30, 208–28, 368–84; 81 (1945): 87–94, 152–175.


[1] From the beginning of the transcript to this point is nearly all of George Washington’s General Orders of July 9, 1776. For complete text, see Philander D. Chase, ed., The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series, vol. 5, 16 June 1776–12 August 1776 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993), 245-47.

[2] In the Battle of Sullivan’s Island on June 28, 1776, American defenders successfully repulsed a British force attempting to capture Charleston, South Carolina. The British withdrew their force to New York and did not return to South Carolina until 1780.

[3] From the beginning of this date’s entry to this point is the second copy of George Washington’s General Orders of July 9, 1776.


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