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Einstein on General Relativity: Does a Pendulum’s Swing Prove the Earth’s Rotation, or that the Universe is Revolving Around the Earth

Albert Einstein, Typed Letter Signed, “A. Einstein”, with handwritten annotation, “gµν-Feld” [i.e., the gravitational metric field]. To Axel Frey Samsoie. Berlin, February 10, 1921. 1p, in German.

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“According to the general theory of relativity, one must consider that the Foucault pendulum adjusts itself to be rotation-free with respect to the total mass of the universe. This mutual influence should however not be interpreted as action at a distance: themasses define the gμν-Feld in space, and this field defines the inertial behavior of the mass of the Foucault pendulum.

Item #26529, $35,000

Benjamin Franklin Responds to the Grievances of the Paxton Boys in the Wake of Their Violent Attacks During the 1763 Conestoga Massacre

Benjamin Franklin, Manuscript Document Signed, as Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly. An Act for granting to His Majesty the sum of Fifty five Thousand Pounds, and for striking the same in Bills of Credit in the Manner herein after directed, and for providing a Fund for sinking the said Bills of Credit by a Tax on all Estates real and personal and Taxables within this Province. May 30, 1764, Philadelphia. Also signed by JOHN PENN, as Governor of Pennsylvania. 83 pp., 8¼ x 12¾ in. , 0/0/0.

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Whereas many barbarous invasions have been made upon several of His Majesty’s Colonies in America, and on the Frontiers of this Province in particular, by divers Parties of the Northern and Western Indians, whereby a great number of the Inhabitants have been driven from their Habitations, many perfidiously murdered and the most cruel Devastations committed in manifest Violation of the most solemn Treaties of Peace lately concluded between our most gracious Sovereign and the said Indians. And whereas His Majesty’s Commander in Chief in North America has thought it necessary, for repelling and preventing the Incursions of the said Indians, to set on Foot certain offensive Operations, to be prosecuted and carried on by His Majesty’s regular forces, in Conjunction with such as should be required of and raised by the several Colonies, Therefore, We, the Representatives of the People of this Province, desirous of complying in the fullest Manner, with the Requisition made of them by His Majesty’s said Commander in Chief, and of cooperating with such offensive Measures as shall be judged necessary for reducing the said Indians and securing the future Peace and Quiet of the Colonies aforesaid, do pray that it may be enacted and be it enacted...That the sum of Fifty five Thousand Pounds in Bills of Credit, to be struck by Virtue of this Act in the Manner herein after mentioned, shall be given to the King’s use.

Item #26253, $37,500

Eighteenth-Century Archive from Hartford Free Grammar School, the Second Oldest Secondary School in America

[EDUCATION], Archive of 21 documents related to the Hartford Free Grammar School. 28 pp., 5¾ x 5 in. to 13 x 15½ in., 0/0/0.

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This small archive includes promissory notes for tuition and a series of accounts with teachers and others from the late eighteenth-century for the Hartford Free Grammar School, the second oldest school of secondary education in the United States. Items include the signatures of Thomas Seymour (1735-1829), who served as the first mayor of Hartford (1784-1812); Solomon Porter (1753-1821), principal of the school; Joshua Leffingwell (1762-1811), Hartford architect; and others.

Item #24151.01, $1,800

Masonic Apron, Neck Sash & Medal of U.S. Mint - California Gold Refiner James Booth, with a Lithograph of Him

[JAMES CURTIS BOOTH], Collection.

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Item #23610, $3,000

Providence Gazette, 1800-1801: George Washington’s Death, Contested Election of 1800, John Adams’ Opening of Washington, D.C., Thomas Jefferson’s Inaugural Address, John Marshall, Fries’ Tax Rebellion, Prosser’s Slave Rebellion, Barbary War, Napoleon, etc.

[Newspaper], The Providence Gazette, January 4, 1800 – December 26, 1801. Providence, Rhode Island: John Carter. Bound Newspaper Volumes. 104 issues, 416 pp. (4 pp. per issue), 11½ x 27½ in.

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Item #24902, $11,000

The Alexander Hamilton Collection: The Story of the Revolution and Founding

[REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND FOUNDING], The Collection features Highly Important Original Letters, Documents, & Imprints representing not just Hamilton, but also Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Paine, Burr, the Schuyler Sisters and Brothers, & Many More. Telling political and personal tales of the brilliant and sometimes tragic Founders, this Collection of more than 1,100 original documents is offered as a whole, but can be reconstituted to make it most appropriate for Federal Hall.

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Can you imagine a nation with no uniting banking system or currency? With insufficient revenue for even the most necessary expenses? With no ability to act as one nation on the world stage?

Clearly, Washington needed a right-hand man for the incredibly detailed work of building a government, formulating plans, and bringing them from conception to completion. His choice was obvious. Alexander Hamilton had revealed his unique energy and capability throughout the Revolutionary War, at the Constitutional Convention, and in the ratification battles. 

On September 11, 1789, the same day Washington signed his letters transmitting the Act of Congress Establishing the Treasury Department, he made his first cabinet nomination: Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury. Within hours, the Senate confirmed the appointment.

The financial system Hamilton designed created the possibility of a real United States of America, whose founding purpose was to advance the rights of the people to “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”

Item #24685, PRICE ON REQUEST

Jefferson’s Excessively Rare Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom

[THOMAS JEFFERSON], Prominent front-page printing of “A Bill for establishing religious Freedom, (Printed for the Consideration of the People),” The Providence Gazette; and Country Journal (Rhode Island), May 13, 1780, 1:1-2.

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One of the three achievements of which Jefferson was most proud, as listed on his epitaph.

Only the second known newspaper printing, and the first front-page printing.

Item #25999, $75,000

1607 Cornelis van Wytfliet’s Norvmbega et Virginia

CORNELIS VAN WYTFLIET, Norvmbega et Virginia. 1607, Second state. 9 x 11 ½”.

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Taken from the first atlas devoted entirely to America, this is only the second map to use ‘Virginia’ in its title, after the White-De Bry of 1590 [AL 09], on which this is partly derived.  Despite major inaccuracies – such as the labeling of the Chesapeake’s latitude near present-day Maine, and the depiction of the mythical city of Norumbega – this map was the most accurate map of the east coast until de Laet (1630).

Item #21001.99, $4,800

Brooklyn Ferry in 1666 - British Royal Governor Confirms Dutch Owners Land Grant for the Brooklyn End of the Ferry

RICHARD NICOLLS, Manuscript Document Signed, March 12, 1666, to Egbert van Borsum. 2 pp. with attached wax seal, 12¾ x 16¼ in.

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Whereas there is a certaine Plott of Ground, with a House or Tenement there upon, Scituate and being at the Ferry, within the Bounds of the Towne of Brucklyn, in the west Riding of Yorkeshire upon Long Island…

Item #23988.12, $8,750

The Acting Governor of New York
Thanks William Penn for a Gift

ANTHONY BROCKHOLLS, Autograph Letter Signed to Governor William Penn. New York, May 1, 1683

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“As the loadstone attracts Iron, so ought acknowledgemts to pursue faviours … [I] dare not presume any further having soe lately recd soe great a marke of your bounty….”

Deputy Governor Anthony Brockholls of New York extends a cordial note to Governor William Penn in the midst of continuing deliberations between Penn and Lord Baltimore over the southern boundary of Pennsylvania and possession of Delaware.

Item #21618, $40,000

“THE GREATEST OF EARLY AMERICAN MAPS”

THOMAS HOLME, [Across the Top]: A Map of the Improved Part of the Province of Pennsilvania in America. Begun by Wil: Penn Proprietary and Governour thereof Anno 1681. [Decorative cartouche to right]: A Map of the Province of Pennsilvania. Containing the three Countyes of Chester, Philadelphia, & Bucks, as far as yet Surveyed and Laid out….

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The “greatest of early American maps … a masterpiece” (Corcoran).

“This monumental work is without question the finest printed cartographic document relating to North America to be published to date.” (Burden). No other English American colony was mapped in the seventeenth century on such a large scale, and in such amazing detail.

Item #22133, PRICE ON REQUEST

William Penn Wanted For Treason

[WILLIAM PENN], Newspaper. The London Gazette, February 9, 1690, 2 pp., 6¼ x 11¼ in.

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Pennsylvania founder William Penn supported James II during the Glorious Revolution, James’s attempt to regain the English throne. When William and Mary ascended the throne, Penn was suspected of treason.

Item #30000.54, $900

“Oaths & Declarations”: William Penn, Jr. and Quakers
Sign Separate Declaration to Sit on Pennsylvania Council with Non-Quakers

WILLIAM PENN, JR, Manuscript Document Signed. N.p. [likely Philadelphia, Pennsylvania], n.d. [ca. February-September 1704]. 2 pp., on bifolium sheet. 320 x 198 mm. One page docketed on verso, “Oaths & Declarations / of Members of Council / Stenton.”

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Document signed by Pennsylvania’s political leaders during a stormy period in the province’s history, which saw chronic tensions between Quakers and non-Quakers, between the “lower counties” of Delaware and the rest of the province, and between the proprietor (William Penn) and the Assembly. All the same, the separate signatures on two sheets of paper attests to the landmark commitment of Penn to religious tolerance.

Item #21923, $18,000

Earliest Known Letter from John to Thomas Penn
Also Signed Many Times by Thomas Penn

JOHN PENN, Autograph Letter Signed. Bristoll, 4 Decem: 1715. 1 page, with autograph address and six examples of Thomas Penn’s signature on verso.

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all Relations have much as they ware & give their Dear Love to Father & Mother…”

15-year old John, having just left the Penn household in Ruscombe, England, writes home. He mentions his mother’s cooking and the well-documented family love of chocolate. The recipient, John’s younger brother, Thomas Penn, who later owned ¾ of William Penn’s proprietary interest in Pennsylvania, practices signing his name on the address leaf. The “Black Cap” referred to in John’s postscript is a reference to the famous Quaker hat. Quakers, as a sign of their egalitarianism, refused to take their hat off for anyone, regardless of societal rank. “Addam” was William Penn’s nickname, a reference to the biblical first man.

Item #21619.99, $25,000

A French Wall Map of the Western Hemisphere

GASPARD BAILLEUL, Map. L’Amerique Divisee en ses Pricipales Parties ou sont distingues les ud de autres les Estats, selon quils appartiennents presentement aux Differents Souverains De L’Europe . . . Par le Sr. Bailleul le jeune Geographe. Jean Louis Daudet, Lyon, France, 1752. Approximately 31 x 40 in., on original wooden rollers.

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Item #22142, $25,000

Anti-Catholic “Test Oath” Signed by George Washington – as Required to Validate his Military Commission as Lieutenant Colonel at the Outset of the French and Indian War

GEORGE WASHINGTON, Manuscript Document Signed, [March 19, 1754]. With signatures of more than a dozen others, dating from Feb. 3, 1754 to Aug. 19, 1755. John West, Jr. and James Towers, whose signatures immediately follow Washington’s, subscribed on the same day, and, along with several other signers, served with Washington in the 1754 campaign. The subscribers, all Fairfax County, Va. public officials and militiamen, signed starting on the right side of the paper; a second column was then added to the left.

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“there is no Transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lords supper or in the elements of Bread and wine...”

On March 15, 1754, Governor Robert Dinwiddie enclosed Washington’s commission as lieutenant colonel of the Virginia regiment in a letter directing the young officer and his men to the Ohio Valley to help defend against approaching French forces. Four days later, Washington signed this “test oath” – required of all Virginia civil and military officers – validating his commission. He would soon find himself at the center of a battle that ignited war between Britain and France, and a defeat that led him to sign the only surrender of his entire career.

Ironically, Washington’s signature on this document launched the military and political career that eventually proved instrumental in expanding the religious freedoms that this oath sought to restrict.

Note that we have agreed to steer this to a philanthropic individual, foundation or company willing to acquire and donate this to George Washington’s Mount Vernon or the Fairfax County Circuit Court Archives. Details on request.

Item #23200, PRICE ON REQUEST

In Benjamin Franklin’s Paper, Colonel George Washington Reports as Positively as Possible on the Surrender of Fort Necessity, Which Sparked the French and Indian War

[GEORGE WASHINGTON], Pennsylvania Gazette, August 1, 1754. Newspaper. Philadelphia: Benjamin Franklin and David Hall. 4 pp., lacking the advertising half-sheet, 9¼ x 14½ in.

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Item #22426.03, $4,500

Pennsylvania Deputy Governor Urges General Assembly to Resist French Expansion in North America in Early Stages of the French and Indian War

[BENJAMIN FRANKLIN], Pennsylvania Gazette, October 24, 1754. Newspaper. Philadelphia: Benjamin Franklin and David Hall. 6 pp., 9¼ x 14½ in.

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This issue of Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette reports the speech of Deputy Governor Morris of Pennsylvania to the General Assembly, urging them to prevent the French and their Native American allies from gaining control of the colony’s western border. The General Assembly responded that they were eager to assist but lacked any “Instructions from the Crown how to conduct ourselves on this important Occasion” and requested a recess until called together again.

Item #22426.07, $1,500

Declaration Signer Francis Hopkinson Gives Address at Academy of Philadelphia

[FRANCIS HOPKINSON], Pennsylvania Gazette, November 21, 1754. Newspaper. Philadelphia: Benjamin Franklin and David Hall. 6 pp., 9¼ x 14½ in.

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This issue of Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette reports addresses by two students at the Academy of Philadelphia, including seventeen-year-old Francis Hopkinson, who went on to write music and poetry, sign the Declaration of Independence, and design the American flag. Founded in 1751, the Academy provided classical education and instruction in practical skills. Most of the trustees had received a classical education and favored a similar curriculum for the academy, but trustee Benjamin Franklin favored an education that stressed practical skills. He advocated teaching all classes in English and emphasizing mathematics and science.

Item #22426.09, $1,800

Pennsylvania Prepares to Meet French Encroachments at Start of French and Indian War

[FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR], Pennsylvania Gazette, December 19, 1754. Newspaper. Philadelphia: Benjamin Franklin and David Hall. 6 pp., 9¼ x 14½ in.

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This issue of Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette includes communications between Lieutenant Governor Robert Hunter Morris and the Pennsylvania General Assembly regarding responses to the French threat on the western border of the colony. Conflict between French and English forces there erupted into the French and Indian War, and globally into the Seven Years’ War.

It also includes details of a lecture by Ebenezer Kinnersley, a partner of Benjamin Franklin in experiments on electricity, and a brief notice of George Whitefield’s sermons in New York City.

Item #22426.11, $2,800
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